Penicillin is a group of antibiotics derived from Penicillium fungi. Penicillin antibiotics are historically significant because they are the first drugs that were effective against many previously serious diseases, such as syphilis, and infections caused by staphylococci and streptococci. Penicillins are still widely used today, though many types of bacteria are now resistant.
Antibiotic resistance is a type of drug resistance where a microorganism is able to survive exposure to an antibiotic. Antibiotic resistance can be a result of horizontal gene transfer. Horizontal gene transfer is the primary reason for bacterial antibiotic resistance and in the evolution of bacteria that can degrade novel compounds such as human-created pesticides . This horizontal gene transfer often involves plasmids. Genes that are responsible for antibiotic resistance in one species of bacteria can be transferred to another species of bacteria through various mechanisms, subsequently arming the antibiotic resistant genes' recipient against antibiotics, which is becoming a medical challenge to deal with. This is the most critical reason that antibiotics must not be consumed and administered to patients without appropriate prescription from a medical physician.
Thus a gene for antibiotic resistance which had evolved via natural selection may be shared. Evolutionary stress such as exposure to antibiotics then selects for the antibiotic resistant trait. The widespread use of antibiotics both inside and outside of medicine is playing a significant role in the emergence of resistant bacteria. Although there were low levels of preexisting antibiotic-resistant bacteria before the widespread use of antibiotics.
The volume of antibiotic prescribed is the major factor in increasing rates of bacterial resistance rather than compliance with antibiotics. A single dose of antibiotics leads to a greater risk of resistant organisms to that antibiotic in the person for up to a year.
Inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics has been attributed to a number of causes, including: people who insist on antibiotics, physicians simply prescribe them as they feel they do not have time to explain why they are not necessary, physicians who do not know when to prescribe antibiotics or else are overly cautious for medical legal reasons. For example, a third of people believe that antibiotics are effective for the common cold and the common cold is the most common reasons antibiotics are prescribed.
Antibiotics stop working because bacteria come up with various ways of countering these actions, such as:
Preventing the antibiotic from getting to its target When you really don't want to see someone, you might find yourself doing things like hiding from them or avoiding their phone calls. Bacteria employ similar strategies to keep antibiotics at bay. One effective way to keep a drug from reaching its target is to prevent it from being taken up at all. Bacteria do this by changing the permeability of their membranes or by reducing the number of channels available for drugs to diffuse through. Another strategy is to create the molecular equivalent of a club bouncer to escort antibiotics out the door if it gets in. Some bacteria use energy from ATP to power pumps that shoot antibiotics out of the cell.
Changing the target Many antibiotics work by sticking to their target and preventing it from interacting with other molecules inside the cell. Some bacteria respond by changing the structure of the target (or even replacing it within another molecule altogether) so that the antibiotic can no longer recognize it or bind to it.
Destroying the antibiotic This tactic takes interfering with the antibiotic to an extreme. Rather than simply pushing the drug aside or setting up molecular blockades, some bacteria survive by neutralizing their enemy directly. For example, some kinds of bacteria produce enzymes called beta-lactamases that chew up penicillin.
Why doesn’t colloidal silver quit working against bacteria, viruses and fungi?
Because the nano sized colloids and silver ions attack the enzyme that the bacteria use to make oxygen to survive essentially suffocating them. So it is a completely different way of killing germs. Because of the extremely small size of silver it is able to penetrate areas of the body that bacteria and viruses like to hide from prescription antibiotics.